The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, in a case of first impression, has shocked the railroad and motor carrier industry by deciding that the Carmack Amendment applies on the inland portion of an import shipment on a through bill of lading, to the exclusion of The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act’s (COGSA) limitation. Sompo Japan Insurance Company of America, v. Union Pacific Railroad Co., 2006 U.S. App. LEXIS 17385 (2nd. Cir., July 10, 2006).